in chapter 4 a language technique is used called a pun. “on the edge” is used in this text to summarise the events in this chapter. this pun can be seen in multiple contexts by the reader, in one way the reader can interpret it literally as in a person being on the edge of a ridge or cliff, in another way the reader can interpret it as being a figure of speech in which the edge symbolises a mental barrier which they are close to breaking.
Fore shadowing: in this text foreshadowing is used in different ways to give the reader somewhat of a hint of the potential future events to come later in the text. this technique is used to create more effect for the reader. it is often used as a way of warning that a dangerous event is upcoming in the near text. an example of this technique used in touching the void is when joe says “it will be dark in an hour, to make things more difficult the storm had boiled over us again” this quote creates a sense of danger to come soon we know this because the quote states it will become dark which is harder to climb and has greater risk, as well as stating that a storm is brewing which gives us an image of a storm forming over them which could cause caution and danger to the climbers.