For example, he describes the black space below him in the crevasse as: “the stark blackness of the drops, too deep for the light to penetrate…the black space held untold horrors….staring at the black hole in front of me….the dark spaces menaced” (page 110), but then contrasts these dark images with descriptions of the night sky: “small hole in the roof, where the sky was cloudless, packed with stars, and moonlight was adding its glow to their bright sparkle.” (page 111)

Contrast is used in this section of the text to assist the reader in understanding Joe’s conflicting  emotions and feelings. the reader is shown Joe’s negative mindset when he refers to the crevasse below as black space holding untold horrors, this shows that Joe sees the darkness below as frightening and unknown which leads him to believe he has little chance of survival. Joe’s emotions are contrasted with a slight sense of hope through the language and mood when he talks about the moonlight shinning through a “small hole in the roof” these two images of dark and light show what Joe’s inner emotions are, the dark being an endless void of death, and the light being the slight hope that Joe has of surviving.

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Writing